TIVOLI, once upon a time a Roman holiday resort in a wonderful position on a limestone hillside overlooking the Campagna, with its waterfalls which have delighted painters for four centuries.
Coming in from Palombara we go down into the Aniene valley and follow the Via delle Cascate, going round the city, which rises in front of us, to see the famous Cascades. Once in the city, which is an extraordinary mixture of styles and periods, see the Temple of the Sibyl, or of Vesta, overlooking the valley, with another rectangular temple beside it, in the Villa Gregoriana, among woods and streams.
In the Cathedral (rebuilt 17° century) there is a Byzantine altar-piece and a splendid woodcarving of the 13° century - the Deposition. The church of San Silvestro has 12° century Roman-Byzantine frescoes in the apse.
From here we pass to the wonderful Villa d'Este, one of the most famous of 16° century gardens, built by Ligorio for Cardinal Ippolito d'Este (1549). Not far away is the Castle of Pope Pins 11 (1459).
Five kilometres (3 mi.) out of Tivoli on the road to Rome is Hadrian's Villa, one of the most important architectural complexes of Roman antiquity, built by Hadrian, who died before seeing it completed, and continued by his successors. It was robbed by Constantine of its marbles and devastated by the barbarians. Its reconstruction began in the 16° century. There is a Greek Temple, Baths, ruins of temples, a marvellous square, all in a setting of trees planted in the 18° century, when systematic reconstruction began.
From here we take road again passing over the LUCANO BRIDGE with the Plautian Tombs beside it (they were made into a fortress in the Middle Ages), we reach PALESTRINA at 21 km. (13 mi.) This city stands on a hillside and rose on the ruins of the ancient Sanctuary of Fortuna: the present Palazzo Barberini is built over part of this; it houses the famous Nile mosaic. Passing Cave, leaving the turning for Genazzano on the left(10 km. - 6 1/4 mi.) we pass through Olevano Romano to reach SUBIACO at 38 kin. (23 3/4 mi.) from Palestrina.